how do solar street lights work |Huajun

I. Introduction

1.1 Background of the development of solar street lights

Solar streetlights are streetlights that utilize solar energy as an energy source, which is a clean and renewable energy application. In the past few decades, with the increasing awareness of environmental protection and the growing demand for energy, solar streetlights have gradually come to the fore and gained widespread attention and application. The background of the development of solar street lights can be traced back to the 1970s, when solar energy technology gradually matured and began to be applied commercially. As solar energy has the advantages of being renewable, clean and non-polluting, and the problems of energy depletion and environmental pollution are getting more and more serious, solar street light has become a new type of choice to solve the problems.

In the future, solar street lights will continue to innovate and improve, increase the effectiveness and reliability, so that it can play a greater role in the field of street lights and provide better lighting services for people.

II.Components of Solar Street Lights

2.1 Solar panels

2.1.1 Structure and principle of solar panel

Solar panels use solar cell technology to convert solar energy into electrical energy. Its main structure consists of a series of connected solar cells that are formed by multiple thin layers of silicon wafers or other semiconductor materials. When sunlight hits the solar panel, photons excite electrons in the material, creating an electric current.

2.1.2 Material Selection and Quality Requirements for Solar Panels

The selection of materials for solar panels determines their efficiency and lifetime. Commonly used solar panel material selection includes monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon. In the process of material selection, you need to consider the material's solar energy conversion efficiency, weather resistance, high temperature resistance and other factors. In addition, solar panels also need to have good quality, such as joint tightness, uniformity and protection to ensure long-term stable work.

2.2 LED Light Source

2.2.1 Working Principle of LED Light Source

LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a light-emitting diode that generates light through the electron recombination process triggered by the forward voltage of the current through it. When current passes through the semiconductor material inside the LED, electrons combine with holes to release energy and produce visible light.

2.2.2 Characteristics and advantages of LED light source

LED light source has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy consumption, long life and environmental protection. Compared with traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps, LED light source is more energy efficient and has a longer service life. In addition, LED light source can achieve flexible adjustment of color, brightness and beam angle, so it is widely used in solar street lights.

2.3 Battery Energy Storage System

2.3.1 Types of Battery Energy Storage System

The battery storage system of solar street light generally uses rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries and so on. Different types of battery energy storage systems have different energy storage capacity and life.

2.3.2 Working principle of battery energy storage system

Battery energy storage systems work by storing the electricity collected by solar panels for power supply at night or on cloudy days. When the solar panel produces more electricity than the street light needs, the excess energy is stored in the battery. When the street light needs electricity, the battery will release the stored energy to supply the LED light source for illumination. The battery charging and discharging process can realize the conversion and storage of energy to ensure the continuous work of solar street light.

III. Working principle of solar street lamps

3.1 Light Sensing

According to the perceived light intensity, the function of the light sensor is to judge whether the current lighting is needed and automatically control the switch state of the solar street light. The light sensor generally uses a photosensitive resistor or photosensitive diode as the light-sensitive element, when the light intensity increases, the voltage of the resistor or diode will change, and this change will be converted into a control signal through the circuit.

3.2 Automatic control system

The automatic control system is the core part of the solar street light, and its function is to automatically control the working state of the solar street light according to the signal of the light sensor. The automatic control system realizes the intelligent control of the solar street light by controlling the output of the solar panel, the brightness of the LED light source and the charging and discharging process of the battery storage system. Its functions include switching the brightness of the LED light source on and off according to the light sensor signal, adjusting the brightness of the LED light source, monitoring and controlling the charging and discharging process of the battery energy storage system, and so on.

3.3 Photovoltaic effect of solar panels

Solar panels utilize the photovoltaic effect to convert solar energy into electricity. The photovoltaic effect refers to the fact that in semiconductor materials, when light strikes the surface of the material, photons will excite the electrons in the material, forming an electric current.

3.4 Electrical output of solar panels

When sunlight strikes the solar panel, the energy of the photons excites the electrons in the p-type silicon hierarchy to become free electrons, and also takes away an electron from the n-type silicon hierarchy. This current can be output as the electricity of the solar panel after connecting the line.

The above is the working principle of solar street light.

Resources | Quick Screen Your Solar Street Lights Needs

IV. Maintenance and management of solar street light

5.1 Regular inspection and maintenance

5.1.1 Solar panel cleaning and maintenance

Regularly check the surface of the solar panel to see if there is any accumulation of dust, dirt and so on. Use a soft cloth or sponge dipped in water or a low concentration detergent solution to gently wipe the surface of the solar panel. Be careful not to use overly harsh detergents or brushes that may damage the panel surface.

5.1.2 Lifetime management of LED light source

Regularly check whether the LED light source is faulty or damaged, if you find that the brightness dims, flickers or some of the lamp beads go out, etc., it needs to be repaired or replaced in time. Pay attention to the heat dissipation of the LED light source, to ensure that the heat sink or heat sink around the light source works properly, to prevent overheating resulting in shortening the life of the light source.

5.2 Troubleshooting and Maintenance

5.2.1 Common faults and solutions

Failure 1: Solar panel surface damage or rupture.

Solution: If only the surface is damaged, you can try to repair it, if the rupture is serious, you need to replace the solar panel.

Failure 2: LED light source brightness dimming or flickering.

Solution: First check whether the power supply is normal, if the power supply is normal, you need to check whether the LED light source is damaged, if you need to replace.

Failure 3: The automatic control system fails, the solar street light can not work normally.

Solution: Check whether the sensors, controllers and other components in the automatic control system are damaged, if they are damaged, they need to be repaired or replaced.

5.2.2 Spare parts reserve and replacement

For common wearing parts, such as LED light source, solar panel, etc., it is recommended to reserve spare parts in time. When the solar street light fails and parts need to be replaced, spare parts can be used for replacement to reduce the street light maintenance time. After the replacement of spare parts, the replacement parts need to be inspected and tested to ensure that they work properly.

V. Summary

As an environmentally friendly and renewable lighting device, solar street lights have a broad development prospect. With the increasing global demand for sustainable development, solar streetlights will become an important choice for future urban lighting. With the growth of market demand, personalized solar lights are becoming another major demand for commercial solar street lights.
It is very important to choose high quality decorative solar street lights manufacturers and custom street lights. At the same time, rational planning, high quality products and regular maintenance can ensure the stable operation and good performance of solar street lights and provide green and energy-saving lighting solutions for cities.


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Post time: Sep-14-2023